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US not at a disadvantage in economic and trade ties with China

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Commentary: Zero-sum mentality goes against trend of times


The US is incorrect to claim that it’s “at a disadvantage” and “economically invaded” in doing trade with China just as it has a large trade deficit.

The US-China trade family members are mutually voluntary and complementary. China hasn’t ever regarded for a compelled trade dating with the US, or a trade surplus.

Statistics through the United Nations (UN) indicated that in 2017 US exports of products to China amounted to $129.89 billion, a 577% – Increase from $19.18 billion in 2001, a lot upper than the common expansion charge of total US exports that stood at 112 p.c in the similar length.

It is noteworthy that the expansion used to be accomplished because the US has strictly limited the kinds of exports to China and banned the gross sales of positive excessive applied sciences.

The US trade deficit with China would more than likely be narrowed if the US allowed gross sales of high-tech merchandise to China. If the US offered {four} Ford-class plane carriers priced at $15 billion each and every, it might simply make up for a $ 60 billion trade deficit with China.

A file launched through the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in April 2017 indicated that if the US have been to liberalize its export boundaries in opposition to China to the similar stage as the ones appropriate to Brazil or France, the US trade deficit with China could be narrowed through as much as 24 p.c and 35 p.c respectively.

While preserving product design and advertising and marketing by itself territory, the US has been transferring its processing and meeting traces out of the country in contemporary many years, with China being the biggest host nation of this global commercial switch.

Numerous Chinese exports to the US are if truth be told US-designed merchandise manufactured in China. Chinese corporations receives a commission through product production and they earn a lot lower than the transnational corporations. It is completely unfair to mention China has received extra income than the US.

Instead of being an “economic aggression”, China’s construction supplies nice energy for global economic expansion. China has stored a contribution of about 30 p.c to global economic expansion since 2013, the first position in the arena. In 2017, that determine reached 34.6 p.c, nearly two times of that of the US.

China’s construction has additionally expanded the global marketplace. From 2001 to 2017, the expansion of products imported through China rose through 13.Five p.c on reasonable, two times as speedy because the global reasonable. In the similar length, the common expansion of products and services in trade imported through China used to be 16.7 p.c, 2.7 instances of the global reasonable.

China may be the most important activity writer. It has co-built greater than 80 economic and trade cooperation zones with Belt and Road international locations, growing 244,000 native jobs. According to Ernst & Young, China has created greater than 130,000 jobs in Africa from 2005 to 2016, tripling that finished through the US.

Between 1990 and 2016, China created 1.eight million jobs throughout Latin America and the Caribbean area, in step with an International Labour Organization file titled “Effects of China on the quantity and quality of jobs in Latin America and the Caribbean”.

Some – People in the US claime that China is “stealing” American jobs, as a result of some US factories were moved to China. Indeed, the remarks arebiased and groundless.

According to a 2017 US-China Business Council estimate, in 2015, US exports to China and US-China two-way funding supported 2.6 million jobs in America.

A learn about through Ball State University discovered that America has lost greater than 7 million manufacturing unit jobs since production employment peaked in 1979, however the overwhelming majority of the lost jobs — 88 p.c — have been taken through robots and different homegrown components that cut back factories’ want for human hard work. It proves that the American activity loss has no connection with China.

When increasing opening up, China hasn’t ever taken the initiative to begin a trade friction. Instead, it has comprehensively fulfilled its commitments to the World Trade Organization (WTO).

China has larger help to creating international locations, particularly to the least-developed ones, in an effort to slim the South-North construction hole. By March 2018, it had accorded 0 tariff remedy on 97 p.c of all tariff traces to 36 least-developed international locations that experience diplomatic family members with China and finished alternate of notes.

In 2018, China introduced measures for additional opening up and substantively reduced threshold for marketplace get admission to. It pledged to hurry up in-depth and all-round opening up of the provider sector, particularly monetary business.

Under the banner of “reciprocal opening up” and excuse of abusing the “national security”, the US has established the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS), which contains individuals of more than a few departments, such because the intelligence division. The idea of “national security” is repeatedly expanded to turn into a instrument to dam international corporations to go into the US.

In 2017, the CFIUS limited greater than 20 international corporations, part of that have been Chinese, from coming into the US through the excuse of “national security”.

As WTO individuals, China and the US will have to clear up economic and trade disputes below WTO framework. However, the US has left out WTO dispute agreement mechanisms and arbitrarily treated international trade frictions through its home rules.

Its behaviors run completely in opposition to the elemental rules of the WTO, in addition to its duties of tariff relief and the most-favored-nation remedy.

给中美贸易战算算账
钟轩理
 
美国认为对华货物贸易存在巨额逆差是“吃亏”,受到了“经济侵略”,贸易账不能这样算。要看到,贸易是相互的,各取所需,你情我愿,中国从未强买强卖,也不刻意追求顺差。根据联合国统计,2017年美国对华货物出口1298.9亿美元,较2001年的191.8亿美元增长577%,远远高于同期美国对全球112%的出口增幅。这还是在美国严格限制对华出口商品种类,有些科技含量都不让卖的情况下做到的。如果美国肯卖高科技产品的话,还会有这么大逆差吗?比方说,美国的福特级航母卖不卖?一艘按150亿美元算,卖给中国4艘,马上就能填上600亿美元的逆差。据美国卡内基国际和平基金会2017年4月的报告分析,美国若将对华出口管制放松至对巴西的水平,美国对华贸易逆差可缩减24%;如果放松至对法国的水平,美国对华贸易逆差可缩减35%。

几十年来,美国本土的加工、组装等制造环节向全球转移,自身保留设计、营销等服务环节。中国成了全球产业转移的最大承接地,很多货物出口都是美国等国家在华生产并“买回去”的。在产品价值链中,跨国企业拿到的是大头,中国企业拿到的是小头,只是一点加工费、辛苦钱,全算作中国“赚了”显然不公平。

事实上,中国的发展不但不是“经济侵略”,反而是世界经济增长的重要引擎。2013年以来,中国对世界经济增长的贡献率持续保持在30%左右,始终居世界第一位,2017年更高达34.6%,约为美国的两倍。中国的发展还给世界带来更大的市场。2001年到2017年,中国货物进口平均增速达13.5%,是世界平均数的两倍;同期中国服务贸易进口平均增速16.7%,是世界平均数的2.7倍。

在世界上,中国也是就业机会的重要创造者。目前中国与“一带一路”沿线国家共同建设境外经贸合作区80多个,为当地增加了24.4万个就业岗位。安永事务所指出,2005年到2016年,中国在非洲创造的就业岗位超过13万个,是美国创造岗位的3倍多。此外,据国际劳工组织发布的《中国与拉美和加勒比地区经贸关系报告》,1990年到2016年,中国为拉美和加勒比地区创造了180万个就业岗位。

美国国内有说法称,中国“抢走”了美国人的饭碗,依据是美国有一些工厂转移到了中国,这是片面的、站不住脚的。美中贸易全国委员会2017年发布的报告指出,中美经贸关系支持了约260万个美国就业岗位。另外,美国波尔州立大学的一份研究报告指出,相比1979年时美国制造业岗位数的巅峰,当前美国的确失去了约700万个制造业岗位,但其中88%的原因在于工业自动化水平的提高减少了对劳动力的需求,与中国没有关系。

不断扩大开放的中国,从未主动挑起贸易争端,并充分履行入世承诺。中国还加大对发展中成员特别是最不发达国家成员援助力度,促进缩小南北发展差距。截至2018年3月,已对36个建交且已完成换文手续的最不发达国家97%税目产品实施零关税。今年以来,中国再次向全球宣布扩大开放措施,大幅度放宽市场准入,在服务业特别是金融业方面,全领域深度加快开放进程。

反观打着“对等开放”旗号的美国,滥用“国家安全”名义,组建了包括情报部门等多部门成员在内的“外国投资委员会”(CFIUS),不断拓展“国家安全”的涵盖范围,使“国家安全”成为美国任意阻碍外国企业进入美国的工具。仅在2017年“外国投资委员会”就以“国家安全”名义限制外国公司进入美国市场20多起,其中半数以上为中国公司。中美都是世贸组织成员,经贸上出现一些问题理应在世贸组织框架内解决。但美方却抛开世贸组织争端解决机制,根据自己的国内法蛮横地处理对外贸易摩擦,完全背离了世贸组织的基本原则,违反了美国承诺的关税减让和最惠国待遇义务。

21 overall perspectives, 21 perspectives nowadays



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